Het Pantheon is een antieke tempel in Rome uit de 2e eeuw n.Chr. The oculus at the top of the dome was never covered, allowing rainfall through the ceiling and onto the floor. [12] It seems highly significant that Dio does not quote the simplest explanation for the name—that the Pantheon was dedicated to all the gods. The wooden crucifix on the altar is from the 15th century. [71], Among the most notable versions are the church of Santa Maria Assunta (1664) in Ariccia by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, which followed his work restoring the Roman original,[72] Belle Isle House (1774) in England and Thomas Jefferson's library at the University of Virginia, The Rotunda (1817–1826). [64] The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method. "[12], Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. The interior of the dome was possibly intended to symbolize the arched vault of the heavens. This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. A competition was held to decide which architect should design it. Media in category "Pantheon (Rome)" The following 75 files are in this category, out of 75 total. The first niche to the right of the entrance holds a Madonna of the Girdle and St Nicholas of Bari (1686) painted by an unknown artist. It had long been thought that the current building was built by Agrippa, with later alterations undertaken, and this was in part because of the Latin inscription on the front of the temple[19] which reads: or in full, "M[arcus] Agrippa L[ucii] f[ilius] co[n]s[ul] tertium fecit," meaning "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made [this building] when consul for the third time. Par exemple : le panthéon grec, égyptien, hindou. Langue; Suivre; Modifier; Fichier; Historique du fichier; Utilisation du fichier; Usage global du fichier; Métadonnées; Taille de cet aperçu : 417 × 599 pixels. [15] It seems likely that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae (public temples). [74], The portico-and-dome form of the Pantheon can be detected in many buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries; numerous government and public buildings, city halls, university buildings, and public libraries echo its structure. The dome features sunken panels (coffers), in five rings of 28. [5], The pediment was decorated with relief sculpture, probably of gilded bronze. The Pantheon (meaning "Temple of all the gods") is a building in Rome. Later construction raised the level of the ground leading to the portico, eliminating these steps. Its Roman concrete dome is 4535 metric tons. The present arrangement is from 1811, designed by Antonio Muñoz. Behind the tomb is the statue known as the Madonna del Sasso (Madonna of the Rock) so named because she rests one foot on a boulder. The royal tombs are maintained by the National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, founded in 1878. The Historia Augusta says that Hadrian dedicated the Pantheon (among other buildings) in the name of the original builder (Hadr. Giuseppe Sacconi participated, but lost – he would later design the tomb of Umberto I in the opposite chapel. At its thickest point, the aggregate is travertine, then terracotta tiles, then at the very top, tufa and pumice, both porous light stones. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Nous connaissons mieux le panthéon des Grecs et des Romains. The Pantheon is in use as a Catholic church. It was moved to the Chapel of the Annunciation, and then to its present position sometime after 1837. [45] The grey granite columns that were actually used in the Pantheon's pronaos were quarried in Egypt at Mons Claudianus in the eastern mountains. Holes marking the location of clamps that held the sculpture suggest that its design was likely an eagle within a wreath; ribbons extended from the wreath into the corners of the pediment.[42]. Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome: Innovations in Context. Die digter Giuseppe Gioachino Belli (1791−1863), 'n boorling van Rome, het een van sy «Romeinse sonette» aan La Rotonna gewy. Fu fondato nel 27 a.C. dall'arpinate Marco Vipsanio Agrippa, genero di Augusto. ISBN 978-90-247-1458-2 MacDonald, William L.. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned … Ce terme désigne aussi l'ensemble des dieux d'une mythologie ou d'une religion. However, Paul the Deacon records the spoliation of the building by the Emperor Constans II, who visited Rome in July 663: Remaining at Rome twelve days he pulled down everything that in ancient times had been made of metal for the ornament of the city, to such an extent that he even stripped off the roof of the church [of the blessed Mary], which at one time was called the Pantheon, and had been founded in honour of all the gods and was now by the consent of the former rulers the place of all the martyrs; and he took away from there the bronze tiles and sent them with all the other ornaments to Constantinople. [7] Cassius Dio, a Roman senator who wrote in Greek, speculated that the name comes either from the statues of many gods placed around this building, or from the resemblance of the dome to the heavens. The altar in the chapel is covered with false marble. Pantheon in Rome: The History Behind Its Perfect Ancient Architecture. On the vault are several 17th-century canvases, from left to right: Cumean Sibyl by Ludovico Gimignani; Moses by Francesco Rosa; Eternal Father by Giovanni Peruzzini; David by Luigi Garzi; and Eritrean Sibyl by Giovanni Andrea Carlone. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 metres (142 ft), so the whole interior would fit exactly within a cube (or, a 43.3-m sphere could fit within the interior). À propos de Wikipédia; Avertissements; Rechercher. Today, it is not known what gods were included. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Camera for various other works. Die huidige amptelike Italiaanse naam van die Panteon as Rooms-Katolieke kerkgebou is Basilica di … Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Carracci, the composer Arcangelo Corelli, and the architect Baldassare Peruzzi. It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrianand probably dedicated about 126 AD. [44] This substitution was probably a result of logistical difficulties at some stage in the construction. Umberto was buried in the Pantheon in Rome, by the side of his father Victor Emmanuel II, on 9 August 1900. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. 1676 x 1200 jpeg 773kB. The Pantheon is the best preserved of all Roman buildings. The institution still exists, and is now called the Academia Ponteficia di Belle Arti (The Pontifical Academy of Fine Arts), based in the palace of the Cancelleria. The final niche on this side has a statue of St. Evasius (Sant'Evasio) (1727) by Francesco Moderati. Manfredo Manfredi won the competition, and started work in 1885. Filippo Brunelleschi, among other architects, looked to the Pantheon as inspiration for their works. Panteonul, o clădire din Roma (Italia), comandat de Marcus Agrippa ca un templu pentru toți zeii din Roma antică, și reconstruit de împăratul Hadrian, în aproximativ 126 d.Hr. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhof (1973). The tomb of King Umberto I and his wife Margherita di Savoia is in the next chapel. [46] These were dragged more than 100 km (62 miles) from the quarry to the river on wooden sledges. In the early decades of the 20th century, a piece of the original, as could be reconstructed from Renaissance drawings and paintings, was recreated in one of the panels. On the right wall is the canvas Emperor Phocas presenting the Pantheon to Pope Boniface IV (1750) by an unknown. [27] How the building was actually used is not known. [13] In fact, Livy wrote that it had been decreed that temple buildings (or perhaps temple cellae) should only be dedicated to single divinities, so that it would be clear who would be offended if, for example, the building were struck by lightning, and because it was only appropriate to offer sacrifice to a specific deity (27.25.7–10). [49] These were thought to be a 15th century replacement for the original, mainly because they were deemed by contemporary architects to be too small for the door frames. As a result, the interior decorative zones do not line up. The building standing today was constructed on the same site around 126 CE. Le temple et la coupole ronde caractéristique actuels ont été construits au deuxième siècle sous lempereur Hadrien, après que la bâtiment ait été endommagé par un grand incendie en 80 A.D.par un énorme incendie et que la foudre déclencha un nouvel incendie en 110. This discordance has not always been appreciated, and the attic level was redone according to Neoclassical taste in the 18th century.[68]. At the very top, where the dome would be at its weakest and vulnerable to collapse, the oculus actually lightens the load. [1], In the aftermath of the Battle of Actium (31 BC), Marcus Agrippa started an impressive building program: the Pantheon was a part of the complex created by him on his own property in the Campus Martius in 29–19 BC, which included three buildings aligned from south to north: the Baths of Agrippa, the Basilica of Neptune, and the Pantheon. The only definite pantheon recorded earlier than Agrippa's was at Antioch in Syria, though it is only mentioned by a sixth-century source. Cassius Dio, a Graeco-Roman senator, consul and author of a comprehensive History of Rome, writing approximately 75 years after the Pantheon's reconstruction, mistakenly attributed the domed building to Agrippa rather than Hadrian. 7.12). It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". [61], Upon entry, visitors are greeted by an enormous rounded room covered by the dome. [50] However, analysis of the fusion technique confirmed that these are the original Roman doors,[49] a rare example of Roman monumental bronze surviving, despite cleaning and the application of Christian motifs over the course of centuries. On the right side is the low relief Cardinal Consalvi presents to Pope Pius VII the five provinces restored to the Holy See (1824) made by the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. Le premier bâtiment du Panthéon a été bâti par Agrippa, général et homme politique romain, sous Auguste, vers -25 (25 av. They also organize picket guards at the tombs. File:Jakob Alt - Das Pantheon und die Piazza della Rotonda in Rom - 1836.jpg. le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de, Centre national de ressources textuelles et lexicales, Liste des divinités de la mythologie grecque, Portail de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Panthéon&oldid=167126828, Portail:Architecture et urbanisme/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence.